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Melasma is a tan or dark skin discoloration often found on the cheeks, forehead, bridge of the nose or upper lip.
It is thought to be caused by sun exposure, genetic predisposition, hormonal changes, skin irritation and contraceptives.
Melasma can be effectively treated by means of laser therapy. The dermatologist chooses the correct wavelength that penetrates deep enough to eliminate the cells causing the condition, but leaves the surrounding healthy skin unaffected at the same time.
Other supporting treatment options include Chemical peeling and the application of Topical creams containing hydroquinone or kojic acid. These are known to lighten dark pigmented spots but any application should be monitored closely by a professional.
The best way to prevent freckling, is rigorous adherence to sun protection protocols, including use of sunscreen on a daily basis.